Group two - Receptive Language
Baseline Report - 26.01.15
Pupil A

Pupil A is 12 year young man with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Pupil A is monitored by the optician due to concerns that he gazes down frequently and moves very close to objects that interest him. Speech and language reports explain that pupil A is able to function in school and at home in terms of his understanding of language. He expresses himself using simple sentences and will express his wants and needs at a word level. He prefers not to communicate through speech and avoids interaction with others, preferring to self isolate.
The current IEP targets for pupil A are:
To identify when an object is different and does not belong.
To respond appropriately to questions about Why? and How?
To participate in imaginative play and co-operate with others on the completion of a particular task.
Pupil A has currently been assessed as working around Pivats level P7 and 8.

Baseline results:
Pupil A watched a selection of short video clips with varying content. He also viewed a powerpoint presentation of images and three short stories.

Video 1: The Muppets
Pupil A immediately attends to the video clip, with very precise and focussed gazes. Plots 1 to 32 highlights pupil A’s ability to view the characters in the clip and the interaction between the characters in an organised manner.
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Pupil A continues to attend to and focus on the clip, paying particular attention to the fast moving character. Gaze plots 120 to 122 show that when the character is still, he spends time looking at this character, before moving off and searching for more information on the screen.
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Later Pupil A’s gaze leaves the screen when the a character leaves the screen and the faces turn away from view.
Pupil A continues to search for the fast moving character throughout the video clip and does so successfully, gaze plots 157 to 168.
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At gaze plot 172 to 176 the character is again identified amongst a ‘fuzzy’ background and a new character.

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Pupil A then spends time looking at the new character introduced to the screen, spending time looking at facial features such as eyes, plots 194 to 207.
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During this video clip, pupil A demonstrates the ability to remain focussed for the clip duration, he also demonstrates the ability to perceive and locate a form within a busy field. He is able to attend to multiple characters on the screen and track movement and interactions between characters.

Video 2: Funny Animal Clips

Again pupil A attends immediately, identifying form in gaze plots 1 to 5. At gaze plot 6 to 16 he follows the slow movement, but fails to track sudden movement when the cat in the clip falls to the floor. Pupil A quickly attends to new form in the next clip (gaze plot 17).
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During this clip Pupil A follows movement and is able to anticipate movement, gaze plots 28 to 30 and 43 to 46.
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At gaze plot 70 to 72 pupil A focuses on ‘blurry’ image to gain visual information. The heat spot indicates the time spent focusing on the image. When the form begins to move, the pupil tracks the rapid swinging movement as shown in gaze plots 73 to 86.

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Later on in the clip, the images are poor quality and the main features are often out of focus, during this time pupil A spends time scanning the screen to find visual information. Gaze plots 149 to 158.
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During this video clip Pupil A is able to discriminate between many different forms, he is able to locate images which appear in various positions on the screen and can track movement of different types (left / right, up /down, back to front).

Video Clip 3: Spiderman film

As with previous video clips, this clip provides more evidence that pupil A is able to gain much information from a visual stimulus. There is further evidence which demonstrates he is able to track and predict movement and follow interactions between characters. He is able to search the screen for visual information and look closely at facial images. During this clip pupil A spends time studying facial features of a female character, both during and afterdialogue. Gaze plots 33 to 39.
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He also spends time looking to and from, when characters and having face to face interaction. Gaze plot 56 to 64.
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During this clip pupil A shows he is aware of text on the screen. Gaze plot 204, 272, 273.
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Video Clip 4: Still car images
These images were selected as Pupil A has shown an interest in cars when searching on the internet. During this short powerpoint, Pupil A demonstrates and systematic way of viewing these images. With each image the first gaze plot is in the middle of the image then looks towards the rear of the vehicle and then the front. This is demonstrated in gaze plots 2 to 9, 18 to 22, 60 to 62.
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Where vehicles have particular points of interest such as badges, pupil A is able to identify items of interest. Gaze plot 27 to 29, 54 to 55 and 68 to 70 demonstrate this.
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Pupil A Shows an awareness of background details and is interested in another car shown in the background of one of the slides. Gaze plot 51 and 56.
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Clip 5: Story books.
A selection of short stories with illustrations were presented in a powerpoint presentation. Texts of different size, font and positions were presented on the page. A shared reading activity with each book was recorded.

Text 1 - Dinosaurs Love Underpants:
Pupil A had a delayed response to this presentation. No gaze plots were recorded until 10 seconds into the recording. When the first plots are recorded they appear to fixate on an area where there is little visual information . From gaze plot 1 to 16 pupil A fixates on the bottom left hand corner of the screen for around 9 seconds. Similarly this happens again at gaze plots 94 to 117.When listening to the audio its is possible that this is due to auditory sound effects on the powerpoint or the background noise.

Pupil A shows awareness of text and the direction in which we read the words. This is demonstrated at various points through out this story. A few examples of these are:
Gaze plot 48 to 65, 67 to 73 and 122 to 127

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Pupil A does not identify where the text box is on every page of this story, However, this may be a result of the adult reading the story and the pupil listening. At gaze plots 202 to 220 pupil A initially looks at texts then at the detail in the illustrations, showing particular interest in the toy dinosaur. Other pages demonstrate that pupil A initial interest is in the illustrations.
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Story 2: Kipper’s Birthday
Pupil A immediately attends to clip and identifies the title, and the text on the page. The gaze then moves to the character in the illustrations.
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Identified characters name then the character in the illustration.
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There is evidence that Pupil A reads words left to right, but only when words appear on the right hand side of the book.

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Here Pupil A searches at top and bottom of pages for more text.
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When text appears centrally gaze plots can be seen, however when text appear on the left hand page no gaze plots appear (just heat spots).
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Conclusion:
The baseline information collected from the eye tracking recordings, would suggest that pupil A demonstrates excellent eye gaze, eye contact and visual tracking skills. He is able to obtain visual information from fast moving, confusing images and complex interactions. Pupil A can distinguish text from pictures and understands that words have a meaning. He appreciates that text is read from left to right. Pupil A approaches visual images and text in an organised and systematic manner. The tobii gaze viewer can next be used to gain further insight into how pupil A reads text, when presented in various positions on the screen. Also work can be completed to gain evidence to demonstrate that IEP targets are being achieved (PIVATS target— To respond appropriately to questions about Why? and How?).


See Pupil B evidence